Origen Of Asperger 2

In the second part of my essay, I will discuss Schizophrenia. I will forward evidence to show that the Autistic Psychopathy of Hans Asperger and the more recent Asperger Syndrome of Lorna Wing are strongly connected to Schizophrenia. We will break this study down into very clear stages.
Let us begin by clarifying how Hans Asperger stated that the autism he described in his book Die Autistischen Psychopathen Im Kindesalter was definitely not, in his view, Schizophrenia. Here, he states:
“For the time being it’s sufficient to note we did not get the impression any large percentage of our autistic children fit the criteria for Schizophrenia. More likely, from the perspective of hereditary, biological factors, (that is from the genetic point of view), autism has nothing to do with Schizophrenia. We know of only one case where we initially diagnosed autism, coupled with instinctive deficiency, but then, two years after our encountering the patient, there was a progressive personality breakdown. Therefore, at this point in time we are obliged to diagnose Hebephrenia. ” (Hans Asperger)
As a point of interest, Eugen Bleuler once wrote that autism in itself could not be used to diagnose Schizophrenia:
“Аутизм как таковой не может быть использован для диагностики» (с. 243), как и аффективность, не наблюдаемая у изобретателей, политиков и т. д.”
“Autism as such cannot be used to diagnose Schizophrenia and the same applies to low emotional responsiveness, noticed also in inventors and politicians et cetera.”
The first observation here is that Asperger draws a distinction between autism (as perceived in his patients) and Schizophrenia. Swedish psychologist Eugene Bleuler, in actual fact, described a different kind of autism with regard to Schizophrenia. Bleuler’s patients were considered to be more governed by emotion than logic and intellect. These Schizophrenia patients lived in their own reality, which was the preferred reality – subject to desire. When reality and fact tend to contradict the inner reality, any unwelcome information is rejected and filtered out. This leaves the remaining thought processes fragmented, distorted and lacking logic. Desired, subjective reality substitutes actual reality. Bleuler considered Schizophrenics suffered from defective thought processes and autism.
To this I might add there are many instances of such subjective distortion of reality in typically normal people. For example, it used to be noticed that girls tended to out-perform boys in school class-tests, which resulted in teachers deliberately marking down test papers handed in by female pupils. This allowed the boys to remain relatively superior in classwork. Therefore, we can concude that in this example, a deep-seated fear and foreboding (emotionally driven) induced teachers to deny the logic of evidence and construct a more palatable reality as a delusion. In Bleuler’s schizophrenic autism, this basic rejection of reality based on desire is the same.
Asperger’s interpretation of autism in his own patients was another thing altogether. The Asperger children displayed the typical symptoms of Childhood Schizophrenia but were perceived to show deficits in the sphere of emotional interaction and instinctive learning processes. The Asperger children retreated to a world of their own because they were unable to respond to the emotional demands made of them by others. They lacked mechanisms to process information through shared emotional contact and experience with human beings. They could only intellectualise and rote-learn the rules of social interaction. Their overall ability to process incoming information was poor but not on account of cognitive delay.
The second observation to make is likewise clear enough. Reality would seem to indicate the distinction between Schizophrenia and Schizoid Psychopathy often overlaps. Even if only one of the patients in Asperger’s clinic was initially misdiagnosed, surely that tells us the symptoms of both conditions are extremely difficult to distinguish? Moreover, Asperger’s team of specialists only altered their original diagnosis of autism after the patient had progressed to the point of disintegration of personality. This issue of “personality fragmentation” we will discuss later on.
What is strange here is the fact Asperger frequently distances his patients from any connection to Schizophrenia, despite the subtle distinctions involved. For example, Grunya Suhareva writes:
“Группа шизоидных психопатий имеет какое-то отношение к шизофрении; за это говорят: во-первых наследственно-биологические данные, большое количество шизоидных психопатов в семьях шизофренов и, во-вторых, сходство препсихотической личности шизофренов с клинической картиной шизоидных психопатий.” ( Груня Сухарева)
“The Schizoid group of pathologies has a certain relationship to Schizophrenia. First and foremost, hereditary, biological data supports this. There is a larger percentage of schizoid psychopaths in families of schizophrenics and, secondly, there is a resemblance between the pre-psychotic personality of schizophrenics and that of the clinical depiction of Schizoid Psychopathy” (unquote – in childhood) (Grunya Suhareva).
Doctor Suhareva’s paper, incidentally, written in 1925, quotes vast amounts of genetic and clinical research by Krechmer, Huffman, Rudin, Kahn, Medow and A. Schneider. At that time, the consensus was that Schizoid Psychopathy (more recently, Asperger Syndrome) was a neurological condition, apart from Schizophrenia but still closely related to it in family lines. Or, for the sake of simplicity, a great grandfather might have had Schizoid Disorder but his grandson might end up with Schizophrenia.
Likewise, to clarify our position so far, there were two possible diagnoses that were available to Asperger:
(1) Autistic Psychopathy (autism) as a distinct condition from Schizophrenia.
(2) Pre-psychotic autism, which appears identical to the first possibility, but later in life the patient’s symptoms progress towards personality fragmentation and positive symptoms of Schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia is associated with an ongoing process which, in many cases, started off through symptoms of autism in childhood. If the autism later developed into disassociation of thought processes within an individual, with possible hallucinations or Catatonia, – all of this was thought to be a psychotic process of Schizophrenia.
“Лица, заболевшие шизофренией, часто уже в детстве обнаруживали некоторые характерные особенности. Он различает 4 типа препсихотических личностей шизофренов.” Тихие, робкие, замкнутые, аутичные дети; (Груня Сухарева)
“Those suffering Schizophrenia, most frequently in childhood manifest certain characteristic features. He (Kraepelin) distinguishes 4 types of pre-psychotic, Schizophrenic personalities: Quiet, shy, withdrawn autistic chidren.” (Grunya Suhareva)
So, in reality, it could be very difficult to make a clinical distinction between Childhood Schizophrenia and Asperger Disorder.
“Giese исследовал истории болезни 347 больных шизофренов. У 220 находил в детстве психопатические особенности, которые он делит на три группы.” (Г. Сухарева)
“Giese researched the background of 347 patients with Schizophrenia. Of these, 220 exhibited psychopathic traits in childhood, which he divided into three groups.” (G. Suhareva)
Both Asperger and Suhareva agree that Schizophrenia is not essentially the same as Schizoid Disorder or Autistic Psychopathy (or Asperger Syndrome), although Suhareva – and many European psychologists and geneticists – asserted there was still a definite genetic connection involved:
“Berze (цитировано по Kahn’y) находил у родителей шизофренов шизоидные черты характера, он их считает латентными шизофрениями.” (Г. Сухарева)
“Berze (quoted by Kahn) noted schizoid character traits amongst the parents of schizophrenics and considers them to have latent Schizophrenia.” (G. Suhareva)
Different disorders but both found in family medical history.
Confusing isn’t it? To complicate matters further, many psychiatrists do not accept the idea of a separate condition at all but maintain what Asperger described was simply Childhood Schizophrenia.
“Более категорична Старкова с соавторами, утверждающими, что РДА по своим клиническим проявлениям не что иное как шизофрения, что при этом заболевании у детей поражаются не только эмоции, но и все стороны психической деятельности. Авторы считают что лечение таких больных (в том числе психотерапия) может желать только лучшего и вмешательство врача- психиатра ограничивается диагностикой.”
“Starkova and co-authors were more specific, asserting that Autism in its clinical manifestation is nothing more than Childhood Schizophrenia and that during this illness children suffer not just emotionally but the entire psychological sphere is affected. The authors consider treatment of such patients leaves a lot to be desired and medical intervention is limited to diagnosis.”
It seems strange Asperger tended to overlook the extensive research carried out by German neurologists and geneticists, which concludes families with a history of Schizoid Disorder or Psychopathy have a larger than normal proportion of schizophrenic blood relatives. The early Soviet psychiatrist Grunya Suhareva even provided her own patient history details that confirm German studies. In fact, examining a variety of published anamneses, I have found suggested hereditary links between grandparents and grandchildren.
“Дед по матери в возрасте 35 лет заболел какой-то душевной болезнью, по описанию близкой к шизофрении; умер душевнобольным; по боковой линии деда один случай самоубийства.” (Груня Сухарева)
“His grandfather on the maternal side became ill at 35 with some sort of illness of the soul that, by all accounts was similar to Schizophrenia. He died as a disturbed man. On the grandfather’s family line there was one case of suicide.” (Grunya Suhareva)
What is clear is the fact Hans Asperger himself was convinced his young autistic patients were not suffering from a condition related in any way to Schizophrenia:
“Is personal susceptibility to Schizophrenia a basis for manifestation of the described psychopathic condition? That is, taking into account Schizophrenia is inherited through varied genes, are these patients carriers of distinct genes, through which combined susceptibility to certain illnesses triggers Schizophrenia? Or is the basis of this condition a predisposition to Schizophrenia, which under certain circumstances fails to fully materialise? Specific details of family history could clarify these questions. There would need to be schizophrenic patients amongst blood relatives of our children and these would need to be of higher than average proportion. For the time being, suffice it to say that we have had no indication of any accumulation of Schizophrenia patients in the childrens’ family history.”(Hans Asperger)
Here, I forward descriptions that reveal how close the Asperger children were in behavioural terms to children who had been assessed with Childhood Schizophrenia. The first quotation is taken from Asperger’s paper and, in the second, a psychiatrist describes Schizophenia:
“Worked up and moody, with no inhibitions, they jump wildly around the room and lose all sense of social barriers. They act obsessively with aggression.” (Asperger)
“According to the degree of emotional excitement such people start to dance, leap around, dash back and forth while engaging in other, senseless activities.”.(Russian psychiatrist)
The reason Schizophrenia has always been regarded as a more severe type of autism is due to its apparent progressive nature of deterioration. This refers to the fragmentation of personality that Asperger referred to as fundamental to this condition. It is commonly thought Schizophrenia starts around 18 years of age although, as we have seen, studies by German researchers indicate these patients are often identical to Asperger children in early childhood.
In discussing his patient Fritz F, Asperger outlines his reasons why he feels the symptoms he encountered are not related to Schizophrenia:
“It goes without saying that a great deal of Fritz F’s behaviour suggests a process of Schizophrenia – significantly reduced contact with the outside world, automatization and stereotypical patterns. Yet, subsequent arguments against a diagnosis of Schizophrenia are as follows: The boy’s status is not progressive. There is a lack of obvious fearful symptoms that characterise the initial phase of Schizophrenia. These are severe symptoms of fear and hallucinations. In the case of Fritz F, we see no sign of any manic behaviour. There is no progressive fragmentation of personality. Much in Fritz F’s personality ties in with a deviation from normality but the overall picture is constant, although this distinction depends to a large extent on the peculiarities of the father, mother and fami!y. Fritz F’s personality demonstrates continual development, which in the final analysis leads to an increase in adaptation to demands of the surrounding world. Above all, the general impression – although not subject to definition – with regard to such a boy as Fritz F, and a patient with Schizophrenia, is altogether different. In tbe case of the Schizophrenia patient, we get a frightening impression of personality fragmentation, which clearly can be held in check in some way through educational support. However to get to grips with this condition is not possible, unpredictable and unfathomable as it is.”
At the moment of writing, it has become quite evident the current diagnostic criteria centred around Asperger Syndrome, or autism, gradually evolved along the lines of a chain – Freud – Kraepelin – Bleuler – Kraechmer – Suhareva – Kanner – Asperger – Wing. As the chain evolved, so did the terminology. First we had Dementia Praecox and then Schizophrenia. In the 1920s, Kraechmer radically impacted upon Bleuler’s Schizophrenia by introducing factors based around somatotype and racial genetics. We subsequently ended up with another definition of a disorder that was similar to Schizophrenia, but without psychosis involved and no “destructive process”, referred to by Asperger.
I have found that, in actual fact, the Russian terms for Asperger Syndrome existed years prior to publication of Wing’s papers. “Вялотекущая Шизофрения” “Sluggish Schizophrenia” or “Шизоидное Расстройство” Schizoid Disorder” are terms that, more or less describe what Kanner and Asperger described. Sluggish Schizophrenia indicates that the schizophrenic process of destruction of personality remains static, or greatly reduced in tempo.
To understand Asperger’s papers, we really need to understand the Schizophrenic Group Of Disorders. We also need to look at the different definitions of autism.
In my next post I will describe the clinical aspects of Bleuler’s Schizophrenia that applies to me.

The Lack Of Neurologically Diverse Autism Researchers.

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I thought I would add a few words on this theme in between researching subsequent chapters to my last post. Here, I will discuss the state of autism research today and highlight a few hard facts. Incidentally, my use of the term “autism” relates to conditions such as Asperger Disorder, Schizoid Pathology or Schizophrenia, as opposed to mental delay.
For decades autism research has been monopolised by institution approved psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists and acclaimed authorities on the subject in question. However, what needs to be stated in clear terms is 99 per cent of these specialists are not themselves on the autism spectrum. And by “autism spectrum” I refer to neurological pathologies severe enough to have disrupted school, employment and family life. Indeed, two former friends who suffered such a condition are now both deceased. One, a brilliant musician (gifted in maths) who took his own life. The other an artist and geology student who died around 50 of cancer. Neither could hold down a stable job. Neither found the stability of circumstance that would allow others to learn from their challenges.
Why, you might ask, should it matter if research is being carried out and published in a system that apparently marginalises those who suffer from autism related disorders?
The answer to this is simple: Even going back as far as the 1930s, psychiatrists based their research on observation of children who were usually aged between 10 -14 years of age. Therefore, such research relied upon personal evaluation of the researcher, based upon what was observed in clinics or special schools. Children at such an early age will clearly manifest self-evident symptoms of a pathological condition but will not be articulate enough to be able to explain themselves.
It should be stated a great many of the papers I have read to date by autism authorities describe the patients in dismissive terms.

“Asperger also believed that people with his syndrome had high intelligence, but he did not cite the results of standardized intelligence tests to confirm this. As will be seen from the case histories in the Appendix, special abilities are based primarily on mechanical memory, while understanding of the underlying meaning is poor. People with the syndrome have visible deficits in common sense. ”(Lorna Wing).

The logic employed is, “What is not normal or socially explicable must, by default, be inferior.” To a certain extent, the proclaimed pioneer of autism research in 1980s Britain, Lorna Wing, was equally guilty of evaluating her subject matter on the basis of children. Wing considered her patients to be limited, less intelligent and lacking common sense. She likewise dismissed Hans Asperger’s extensive research on intelligence testing as unsubstantiated (but called her syndrome “Asperger Syndrome”).
With regard to Asperger himself, the question should be raised as to whether his status around the 1990s had somehow proved to be an irritant to autism authorities. Asperger was one of a tiny number of psychologists who actually listened to the children he was actively researching, at the University Of Vienne in Austria. ”

“You can talk with him as with an adult and learn a lot from him.” (Asperger referring to a patient).

It seems quite clear Asperger became convinced the establishment of special schools would enable neurologically disadvantaged children to develop on a more level playing field. That is, through the use of different teaching methods, streamlined to cater to abstract thought-processing. However, we are deviating somewhat from the subject matter.
The basic thrust of my post is that lecture halls will continue to be packed by spectators who are eager to hear the latest lecture, delivered by the latest specialist, who will happily quote strings of impressive chemical formulae, at the same time possibly lacking a solid background in German neurology research. This remains, therefore, something of a socially orientated affair where neurologically “normal” people can happily discuss neurologically “abnormal” people in the presence of far greater numbers of neurologically “normal” people. Let us also be quite clear that, given the constraints of the social status quo, those of us who are genuinely Schizoid, Schizophrenic or suffering similar pathologies are unlikely to be granted a “a special guest speaker position”.
By the same token, you may well notice that each time a licensed authority on autism research publishes the latest best seller on “understanding autism”, critics will, more often than not, rush out to purchase the said book and lavish the author with plenty of positive feedback. Meantime, researchers in university faculties will continue to justify state grants by publishing papers that usually prioritise genetic/biological terminology but fall short of standards in science that existed as far back as the 1940s.
Why then is there practically zero input in this field from tbose of us who actually experience autism in whatever shape or form? Two responses:
(1) Those of us who are far more articulate than the children (used so often in case studies), tend to lack any referenced awareness of “self” in relation to “normal people”. For example, a gifted mathematician who suffers Schizophrenia would typically have no idea of how others may perceive him. Such people remain remote and withdrawn, preferring to specialise in a narrow area of interest. Most have never been able to imagine how different the normal standard of though process is from their own. For an autist to be able to successfully explain the mechanics of neurosis to others requires the capacity to at least intellectually conceptualise polarities of difference. A reference point, so to speak.
(2) Social hierarchy tends to marginalise or ignore the input of those of us us who fit Kraepelin’s description “Degenerierte Verschrobene”. The very nature of being autistic is, after all, to be socially isolated. This leads to a situation I can best describe by analogy : Autism research is a little like the imaginary scenario of several native English people who undertake to learn German, but then choose to talk in the studied language with one another. Never trying to contact or converse with a native German speaker.
To conclude this post, I can affirm after some 5 or 6 years learning about neurological pathologies and autism related disorders, I detected something akin to a brick wall that surrounds this area of research under an umbrella of institution-rubber stamped academia.

ORIGEN (PART 1)

I frequently come across the claim that Childhood Autism was somehow “discovered” more or less in the same way the transistor was invented in the 1950s. Over the decades, we have been informed, for example, that Lorna Wing opened up autism spectrum diagnosis to the English speaking world or that, decades before, Leo Kanner pioneered autism research. Finally, translator Sula Wolff translated Grunya Efimovna Suhareva’s much earlier clinical psychology essays from Russian to English but then made the factually incorrect statement that this dedicated Soviet researcher had actually discovered autism. Here, I quote a typical evaluation:

“Груня Сухарева стала первооткрвательницей детского аутизма, впервые выделив и описав его как отдельное состояние в 1926 году. И это за 20 лет до классческих статей психиатров Лео Каннера и Ганса Аспергера.”
“Grunya Suhareva was the first to discover Childhood Autism. She defined and described it as a separate condition in 1926. To think this came about 20 years before the classic articles published by psychiatrists Leo Kanner and Hans Asperger!”

The above statement, in my view, is factually incorrect. A basic examination of Grunya Suhareva’s essays reveals she described the symptoms and clinical profiles of six children and summarised each particular case with a diagnosis. The diagnosis was the same in each case: Verschrobene, Psychopathic Personality. These diagnostic terms were by no means unfamiliar or unknown to Grunya Efimovna’s colleagues. The term “Verschrobene” or “Degenerierte Verschrobene” had already been applied in psychiatry to describe patients more or less identical to those featured in Dr. Suhareva’s essays. The point that has confused so many people is simply that the pathological condition in question was previously viewed as part of the Schizophrenic Group of neurological variation. Dr. Suhareva was, in fact, part of a significant group of psychologists and geneticists who were persuaded there was a subtype of Schizophrenia called Schizoid Personality Disorder that was not the same as Schizophrenia. All felt it deserved a separate diagnosis.

“Термин “шизоид” не нов, он взят у Блейлера. Не ново также и то, что есть группа психопатов, которая в своей симптоматологии имеет какие-то сходные черты с шизофренией, они описаны Крепелином в его типе “Verschroben”; Birnbaum’ом в его “Degenerierte Verschrobene”. Из русских авторов проф. Ганнушкин еще в 1912 г. писал о шизофренической конституции.” ( Груня Сухарева)

“The term ‘Schizoid” is not new and is derived from Bleuler. Neither is it uncommon knowledge that there is a group of psychopathic personalities who, so far as their symptomology is concerned, share similar traits to Schizophrenia. These are described by Kraepelin with reference to his “type Verschrobene” or by Birnhaum in his “Degeneriete Verschrobene”. On the Russian side, Professor Ganushkin as far back as 1912 wrote of the Schizophrenic Constitution”. (Grunya Suhareva).
Here, it should now become clear that Grunya Suhareva worked under the tutelage of Professor Ganushkin and collaborated with various European psychologists. Many of these sought to distinguish Schizoid Disorder from Schizophrenia.

Now, we will proceed a step further:

As has been affirmed, Dr. Suhareva also diagnosed her six patients with “Psychopathic Personality” . J. Koch was the first psychiatrist to coin the term “Psychopathy” in his book «Die psychopathischen Minderwertigkeiten» in the 19th century. Suhareva indeed writes

“В последнем понимании Кречмера — тип шизоидного психопата, почти совпадает с тем, что описано Крепелином как Verschroben.” (Груня Сухарева)
“Kretschmer’s last analysis was that the Schizoid Psychopathy type is almost synonymous with Kraepelin’s depiction of ‘Verschrobene'”. (Suhareva)
Let us, at this stage, summarise and clarify our analysis in simple terms for our readers:

(1) Grunya Suhareva never claimed to have discovered Childhood Autism. She was a dedicated Doctor of medical science who analysed the research papers of many psychiatrists and geneticists. She developed personal theoretical alliances with other like-minded researchers (Khan, Künckel). She quotes extensively from other psychiatrists in her essays.
(2) Lorna Wing’s Asperger Syndrome in the 1980s was introduced as a “new diagnosis” but it was not new. The said diagnosis was derived from Hans Asperger’s research into Psychopathy in Austria prior to WW2. Hans Asperger himself did not “invent” the classification “Autistic Psychopathy”. Neither did Grunya Efimovna Suhareva.
(3) Asperger Syndrome or Kanner’s Autism are effectively the same as Verschrobene or Schizoid Disorder and these latter terms are derived from the Schizophrenia Group of neurological variation.

Conclusion? Those who seek for themselves a far deeper understanding of autism research may consider going right back to the source of modern psychology. The three pioneers whose brilliant research Kanner, Asperger and Suhareva would have read are:
(1)Ernst Kretschmer.
(2) Emil Kraepelin.
(3) Eugen Bleuler

Krestchmer’s main contribution to science was his assertion we could connect certain neurological disorders with somatic types. Doctor Suhareva and colleagues successfully pointed out that Krestchmer’s depiction of “psychopathic types” was too broad and not sufficiently defined.

Eugen Bleuler is of particular interest as he defined Schizophrenia as a diagnosis and laid the foundation for subsequent sub-types of Schizophrenia. In time, we shall see how closely Schizoid Disorder and Schizophrenia are (in subsequent posts).
In closing, we will quote Grunya Suhareva one last time:

“Принимая во внимание дифференциально-диагностические затруднения, возникающие при отграничении шизоидной психопатии от препсихотической и постпсихотической личности шизофренов, мы остановились лишь на случаях длительно нами прослеженных и с подробными анамнестическими сведениями. Другие менее выраженные формы из нашего клинического материала, могущие представить некоторые диагностические сомнения, мы здесь не берем. Все случаи шизоидных психопатий относятся к мальчикам в возрасте от 11–14 лет.” (Груня Сухарева)
“Taking into consideration difficulties surrounding distinct diagnostic particularities that may arise – when trying to distinguish Schizoid Psychopathy from any pre-psychotic or post-psychotic personality factors (that relate to Schizophrenics) – we decided to focus on the case histories of those we have studied for quite some time. Those whose anamneses we have well detailed. Other cases – taken from our clinical files that are less defined and may occasion some diagnostic uncertainty – we have left aside. All cases of Schizoid Psychopathy are related to boys aged from 11 to 14 years old. (Grunya Suhareva)

As we can see, the above paragraph reveals that any distinction between Schizoid Disorder and Schizophrenia was not at all a straightforward process. The six boys highlighted in these cases were less problematic and easier to depict as not quite within the border lines of Schizophrenia. We shall see later on that Asperger himself struggled to distinguish Bleuler’s Schizophrenia from Autistic or Schizoid Psychopathy. To complicate matters still further, early research demonstrated adults with Schizophrenia showed identical symptoms to Childhood Autism at an early age. Psychiatrists and geneticists concluded Schizoid Pathology differs from Schizophrenia but, in practical diagnosis, struggled to define the distinction.

How Hans Asperger Was Misunderstood

Above: Grunya Suhareva as a young woman.

In this post, I will try and illustrate how distortion, associated with Asperger Syndrome in recent times, has an historical precedent. Over the years I was starting to experience frustration by the way Hans Asperger’s research (and patients) were being misrepresented due to populist stereotyping by autism authorities. Especially irritating was the widespread use of the term “aspies” used to describe people who associated themselves with Hans Asperger’s diagnostic criteria. This is not to suggest that everyone who identified with this term didn’t suffer from autism. It is more a case of the term being associated with nerds, computer geeks and odd characters. Yet often, Asperger Syndrome was never associated with those who fit the early diagnosis.

Let us be clear: The Asperger children were in fact suffering from a pathology that was first described in the 19th century as a type of Schizophrenia. J. Koch in his essay «Die psychopathischen Minderwertigkeiten» first employed the term “psychopathy” to refer to the same pathological deviations from “normality” described by Asperger. This was later referred to as “Verschroben”, and by 1925 “Schizoid Avoidant Autistic Psychopathy”. This was a clinical and disabling condition whereby children were unable to integrate socially, or be taught in a regular classroom.

The more recent term “aspies”, in my view, for the most part matches the term “shizotimiki”, referenced by Soviet psychiatrist Dr Grunya Suhareva. It refers to what was described as “Schizoid Reaction Process”. People who showed this kind of reaction were quite socially functional, employed and integrated. They did, however, manifest behaviour patterns and thought processing mechanisms that mirrored Psychopathy. The same symptoms but in regulated proportion and not leading to social incapacity. Suhareva stated:

“Необходимо более точное отграничение шизоидной группы, во-1), от других форм психопатий, во-2), от шизоидного типа реакции, встречающегося как физиологический феномен в пределах нормальных вариаций (для последней группы желательно иметь термин взятый не из психиатрии).”
“A more precise definition of the Schizoid group is required. Firstly, to distinguish it from other forms of Psychopathy and, secondly, to isolate it from Schizoid Reaction Process which manifests itself as a physiological phenomenon within the boundaries of normal personality variation (for the latter group it is preferable to use a non clinical term).”
Put simply, when Autism Community authorities refer to high profile celebrities as “autistic”, the simple truth is the clinical autism described by Asperger was far removed from that particular conception. Likewise, the much quoted high statistics for Asperger Syndrome are highly misleading. Suhareva stressed:

“Определение шизоидный психопат может быть оставлено лишь для небольшой группы психопатических личностей. Тип шизоидного психопата почти совпадает с тем, что описано Крепелином как Verschroben.”
“The definition of ‘Schizoid Psychopath’ can be left aside only to designate a small group of psychopathic personalities. The Schizoid Psychopathy category is almost identical to what was described by Kraepelin as Verschroben. “

Personally, I have found clinical Asperger Disorder not to be much more common than Schizophrenia (to which it is related – although Asperger disagreed there was any connection). The reason modern-day psychologists or autism authorities so freely diagnosed Asperger Syndrome was simply because they confuse it with “Shizotimia”. That is, the Schizoid Reaction Process, where less extreme traits of autism are present in socially functional people.

At this stage, I should add that Doctor Suhareva’s patients – all children of Jewish or Russian ethnicity – I found to be almost identical to those described by Hans Asperger. Suhareva’s patients were examined in an educational clinic where they agreed to be tested physically and mentally for abnormalities. I also found the fundamental connection between Asperger’s and Suhareva’s referred case histories was an inability to process information at a personally communicated level. Asperger himself became very aware of this fact and, therefore, experimented by automating and de-personalising the teaching system. Both Suhareva and Asperger agreed that children who suffered from Autistic Psychopathy evidenced higher than average intelligence in the area of associative and abstract thinking.

The specific autism which was researched by Asperger in Vienne has baffled and eluded psychologists for decades. Often, the associated learning difficulties have been mistaken as mental delay, and yet it is not that kind of autism (Oligophrenia). Soon we shall see that Asperger Autism is closely connected to Bleuler’s Schizophrenia.

In the 1920s, geneticists demonstrated hereditary parallels between Schizophrenia and Schizoid Avoidant Disorder. Ultimately, to trace the pathology to an earlier source, I was forced to research Schizophrenia and sub-types of Schizophrenia. This led to descriptions of the same condition.

In summary, the children of Asperger were neither nerds, geeks or egg-heads. They were highly withdrawn, unable to function as part of a social collective and antisocial. They suffered from poor co-ordination and slowness. They were emotionally unresponsive, obsessive, disruptive and disconnected from the world around them. They were for the most part rejected by society. Both Asperger and Suhareva realised their patients ultimately had much to offer society if they could be placed in a less stressful environment and be encouraged to develop their less obvious potential.

And finally. Yes, I suffered the exact same symptoms at school as the Asperger children and remained unteachable, apart from reading. I struggled through adulthood with sporadic, short-lived spells of employment. Asperger’s research became a life-saver and opened up the door to understanding a lifelong struggle.

THE CLINICAL TEST FOR ASPERGER PATHOLOGY

TEST FOR PATHOLOGY OF HANS ASPERGER

(1) I experienced significant difficulty at school and struggled to concentrate on explanations made by teachers. (Agree) (Disagree)
(2)I was considered by many to be quite bright but my actual performance in class was below standard. (Agree) (Disagree)
(3 During my school years I daydreamed and would often lose track of what was being explained by teachers. (Agree) (Disagree)
(4) My time at school was full of conflict, tension and apprehension. (Agree) (Disagree)
(5) I found reading far easier than maths as I was growing up. I suffered mental blocks with arithmetic. (Agree) (Disagree)
(6) I showed a very high ability in maths from an early age and was fascinated by patterns in numbers.
(7) In some subjects, I did quite well at school but feel this was the result of my own efforts and not a direct result of what was communicated in class.(Agree) (Disagree)
(8) I consider myself more capable of learning new skills or subjects without the need to find a class, study group or teacher. (Agree) (Disagree)
(9) I tend to notice small details that most people would not pay importance to. (Agree) (Disagree)
(10) I often find I can solve more complicated problems by using my own methods as opposed to trying to understand accepted explanations. (Agree) (Disagree)
(11) I have noticed that my overall perception of standard subjects and way of thinking in general seems not to relate to the norm or resonate with others. (Agree) (Disagree)
(12) I prefer to direct my energy towards being productive and practical. (Agree) (Disagree)
(13) I tend to be governed more by my intellect and understanding than my emotions. I don’t react spontaneously but carefully consider facts as they appear before me. (Agree) (Disagree)
(14) I am very methodical and prefer a systematic, organized approach to any new subject I approach. (Agree) (Disagree)
(15) I am very organized and motivated to see each task completed to the finish. I am purposeful and animated in my work. I always prefer to be physically occupied (Agree) (Disagree)
(16) I get bored when I have to follow a rigid system of beginning and end, using an”A” to “Z” approach. I dislike organised, mechanised systems of tuition. (Agree) (Disagree)
(17) I am very much guided by my emotions and tend to express my feelings quite openly. (Agree) (Disagree)
(18) I smile a lot and appear bubbly as well as interested in what’s going on around me. ((Agree) (Disagree)
(19) I would consider myself to be facially expressive in such a way as people can usually guess my mood through my expression. (Agree) (Disagree)
(20) I rarely smile or show my emotions during everyday interaction. (Agree) (Disagree)
(21) I may sometimes offend others by a general insensitivity towards their feelings or misinterpretation of boundaries. None of this is intentional. (Agree) (Disagree)
(22) I have never had a boyfriend or girlfriend, or have seldom had partners. (Agree) (Disagree)
(23) I have significant difficulty forming close friendships or bonding with other people. (Agree) (Disagree)
(24) I am not very good at being sympathetic or understanding and prefer to offer structured, rational advice to solve problems more pragmatically. (Agree) (Disagree)
(25) I always feel unable to meet the basic expectations demanded of me in everyday life. (Agree) (Disagree)
(26) I appear to have no status where groups, organizations or teams are concerned. I often feel ignored and passed by. (Agree) (Disagree)
(27) I consider myself to be popular and tend to follow the latest trends and areas of interest as others. (Agree) (Disagree)
(28) I would describe myself as introverted, reluctant to socialise or just not good at socialising. (Agree) (Disagree)
(29) I dominate a conversation and steer it towards my own point of interest. (Agree) (Disagree)
(30) I have always been in conflict within family circles or at work. (Agree) (Disagree)
(31) I would describe myself as obsessive over my interests and very goal orientated in these areas. (Agree) (Disagree)
32) I am not suited to work that requires physical dexterity or co-ordination. I find mechanical work to be difficult. (Agree) (Disagree)
(33) In the opinion of others, my handwriting is poor and scrawly. (Agree) (Disagree).
(34) I tend to struggle with personal appearance and hygiene. (Agree) (Disagree)
(35) I am very sensitive to noise and may be annoyed by dripping taps or rustling caused by wind. (Agree) (Disagree)
(36) I prefer to wear my familiar, worn clothes and may feel uncomfortable in stiff shirts or wooly fabrics on my skin. (Agree) (Disagree)
(37) My overall motor movements are slow and awkward. I struggle to catch a ball and was very poor at team sports. (Agree) (Disagree)
(38) People notice me as “different” very quickly and pick up on my awkwardness. I have suffered discrimination from childhood onwards to adulthood. (Agree) (Disagree)
(39) I often feel angry, resentful and very negative towards other people. (Agree) (Disagree)
(40) I have suffered from (or still suffer from) obsessive, compulsive disorder or obsessive, repetitive behaviour. (Agree) (Disagree)
(41) I am sometimes unable to recognise people I know in unfamiliar surroundings. I may mistake a total stranger for someone I actually know. (Agree) (Disagree)
(42) I feel no mental connection with other people and feel disconnected from them. It is similar to watching characters on TV but not being a part of the show. (Agree) (Disagree)
(43) I often don’t make eye-contact or engage with those who initiate conversation. (Agree) (Disagree)
(44) I sometimes feel as if no specific gender is dominant in my personality. (Agree) (Disagree)
(45) I cannot normally share in the experiences of other people and tend to view life from my own perspective. (Agree) (Disagree)
To sketch a profile, add a point every time you select +. Take care with scoring 12, 14, 15, 17, 18 and 19. Unlike other tests, this test doesn’t attempt to diagnose but instead builds a probable profile. It has also been devised by direct sources from Asperger’s research.

  • += 1 point
  • – = zero point
    KEY: add + agree, – disagree.
  • 1: add + agree, – disagree 2: add + agree, – disagree 3: add + agree, – disagree 4: add + agree, – disagree. 5: add + agree, – disagree. 6: add + agree, – disagree. 7: add + agree, – disagree. 8: add + agree, – disagree. 9: add + agree, – disagree. 10: add + agree, – disagree. 11: add + agree, – disagree. 12: add + disagree, – agree. 13: add + agree, – disagree. 14: add + disagree, – agree. 15: add + disagree, – agree. 16: add + agree, – disagree. 17: add + disagree, – agree. 18: add + disagree, – agree. 19: add + disagree, – agree. 20: add + agree, – disagree. 21: add + agree, – disagree. 22: add + agree, – disagree. 23: add + agree, – disagree . 24: add + agree, – disagree. 25: add + agree, – disagree. 26: add + agree, – disagree. 27: add + disagree, – agree. 28: add + agree, – disagree. 29: add + agree, – disagree. 30: add + agree, – disagree. 31: add + agree, – disagree. 32: add + agree, – disagree. 33: add + agree, – disagree. 34: add + agree, – disagree. 35: add + agree, – disagree. 36: add + agree, – disagree. 37: add + agree, – disagree. 38: add + agree, – disagree. 39: add + agree, – disagree. (40: add + agree, – disagree. 41: add + agree, – disagree. 42: add + agree, – disagree. 43: add + agree, – disagree. 44: add + agree, – disagree.45: add + agree, – disagree





The Real Asperger’s Syndrome

After some years of research, the author has been led to the conclusion that Asperger Disorder differs from other autism pathologies, in as much as those affected experience significant difficulties at school. Dutch psychiatrist Van Krevelin explains:
“The psychological profile of the autistic psychopath exhibits three characteristics: Mainly in relation to his environment, he is unable to receive knowledge from others. This becomes quite clear due to poor results in the first grade. The child follows his inclinations because he cannot pay attention to the teacher’s requirements. ” (Van Krevelen).
All of Asperger’s autistic children exhibited problematic behaviour and learning complications during childhood. Fritz F, (one of Asperger’s patients) could not study in a regular school classroom because “the hectic environment around him would annoy him and prevent him from concentrating on his studies. “(Hans Asperger)
Russian professor S. Munhin noted this distinctive feature in his clinical essays and described one patient as follows:
“He went to school at the age of 7.5, but could not study there because of excessive restlessness and distraction.” S.Munkhin
So, the essence of this disorder is an absolute inability to successfully process information in any environment where the system of education relies upon personal communication and social interaction. 98 per cent of people successfully develop to process most information in such a way as emotional feedback plays a pivotal part . In such a case, learning processes are a shared, mutual experience that depend upon instinctive intuition:
“The influence on a child who is brought up in a family is mainly through feelings, through the interaction of feelings of children and parents” (Hans Asperger).
From school and onwards, education becomes ever more structured by hierarchy, status, institutionalisation and norms. Yet, Asperger noted that autistic children could only be original. Their ability to be taught via mechanical processes is greatly reduced. They are generally not inclined to adopt knowledge from adults, for example, from teachers.
“And here we come to an important conclusion. The complications that mechanised teaching causes to autists, the inability to think the same way adults teach, the difficulties that learning from them occasion, the desire to derive everything only from their own perception and thinking, – even among the smartest of them, in many cases has a negative effect.” (Asperger)
In attempting to identify Asperger Disorder, an absolute priority is to evaluate performance at school. The expected pattern would be one of falling far short of normal expectations, disruption and general conflict. Sometimes, it is not so straightforward. A percentage of autistic children may perform better at school as S. Muhnin has stated:
“Despite all the oddities and absurdities of their behavior, which often make them an object of ridicule by fellow practitioners and comrades, they sometimes perform reasonably well in school, reaching the 7th – 8th grade of a special school or even a state school.” (S. Munhin)
Commenting on this, Asperger seemed to take the view that some of his patients didn’t manifest the same severity of withdrawel from the outside world as others. Likewise, he emphasises the reality of disconnection.
“We wish to demonstrate that the significant deviation from normality is caused by an absence of a physical relationship to the world, and said disconnection explains all their anomalies.” (Hans Asperger).
If we accept the fundamental principle that children (and adults) with Asperger Disorder are not able to absorb knowledge from a teacher (where transfer of information depends upon emotional interaction), this means that they suffer from a type of sensory deprivation. Thought processing mechanisms tend to be “inward” and external communication blotted out. As Asperger noted, “They do not perceive impulses from the outside”.
The renowned psychologist and doctor Grunya Suhareva had already described these symptoms in the 1920s.
“He applies himself to school work with great effort and works patiently. With intense concentration, he pays attention to whatever the teacher is saying. He studies inconsistently. First, he will engage himself with his work for some hours, and then – in spite of a seemingly interested expression – he will drift away into himself and fail to acknowledge a question directed to him.” (Grunya Suhareva).
The quotation above also helps to shed light on what was referred to earlier. Suhareva’s description suggests her patient could study in a classroom to a certain degree but not all of the time.
Below is quoted a very clear example of “inward thinking”. It refers to a child who was being treated for autism in Russia:
“He began to watch his father draw a house and would stand for a long time while one house was drawn, the second, the third, and so on. As soon as his father drew a window in the house, the child ran away. Very quickly he learned how to draw houses without doors and windows. “
So, the boy becomes engrossed in imitation of his father’s creative artwork but, at the same time, he approaches the subject in a different way. By not painting in any windows and doors, the boy is subconsciously blocking out the outside world. The example also demonstrates how already the patient is developing “originality”. In cases where the outside world is cut-off, thought processing must adapt by becoming more individualistic, as well as more abstract. This is why some individuals with Asperger Disorder develop the ability to solve complex problems, without the need for collective input. Indeed, originality of thought can go so far that an autistic person might amaze other people with original solutions to difficult mathematical problems, yet the same individual may encounter greater difficulty trying to follow the methods taught in school.
Earlier it was stated how Hans Asperger stood out from other psychiatrists or neurologists in as much his approach was more positive. Asperger most definitely saw a connection between science and neurological deviation. Despite that, he seemed to hold the view that, in the rare cases of genius, autistic characteristics had to be mixed in with “normal” thought processes in the right proportion.
“A child’s success is a consequence of the tension between two poles of opposition: what he does spontaneously and independently, and imitation of what is shown, mastering the knowledge and skills that adults already possess.” (Hans Asperger)
Many of the Austrian doctor’s patients exhibited an unusual ability to find purely original answers to a particular question but it was noticed how, in these cases, there was no ability to apply this to information that already existed.
“The attainments of gifted children from this appear more original and gives them a certain charm. With less gifted children or more severely impaired patients, the answers appear rather inferior and have no value. Information drawn from random impressions does not reflect the essence of things.” (Asperger)
To conclude this article, the author will add some personal interpretation:
For the most part, Hans Asperger clearly approached the subject-matter of autism from a more enlightened and scientific perspective. He sought scientific answers to some deep questions. He carefully observed the children who were placed in his clinic and kept an open mind. Whereas 98 per cent of psychiatrists were dismissive of autistic children, viewing them as intellectually limited, Asperger became aware it is not possible to measure creative potential by using standardised, relative intelligence testing. He sensed that a less rigid environment and applied psychology could encourage giftedness in areas less expected. Of course, Asperger had clearly studied German psychology and may have been influenced to research the area of processing:
“Bleuler found a unique predisposition in 3/4% of all cases. This was expressed through strange behaviour, autism and a thought processing mechanism that deviated from normality. ” (Suhareva)
Asperger carried his research far enough to explore what possible teaching system might be utilized in such cases where children had reacted negatively to the classroom environment. In fact, it cannot be stressed enough that this research had a far broader scope than any conventional approach that idealised normality and strove to eliminate abnormality. In the clinic at Vienna University, all behavioural abnormalities were put into an overall perspective, while every attempt was made to study neurological implications and factors surrounding genetics.
It was observed how above average performance in some areas of application could be enabled by attempting to eliminate emotionally based interaction and creating a far less rigid environment. Teachers in the clinic were instructed not to express excessive emotion and to give instructions impersonally:
“If we formulate requirements, at first glance, like automotive machines , stereotypically in the same monotonous way as they themselves speak, then often there is a feeling that they must obey and there is no way to disobey the order.” (Asperger)
To summarise:
(1) To diagnose Asperger Disorder, careful examination of conflict and difficulties during school years must be clarified. In the former USSR, a high percentage of children ended up in the so-called “special schools for neurotics”. These do not appear to have been particularly unenlightened, although worryingly anti-depressants were utilized. Today in parts of Europe and the U.S. there appears to be no structured process to identify and support Asperger children. Uncertainty and confusion over the condition led to the elimination of Asperger Syndrome as a clinical pathology, with the substitution of ASD in its place. However, the author has serious doubts as to the vagueness of the modern definition.
(2) Asperger Disorder can be “managed” successfully by the use of different teaching systems as well as a more straightforward and concise explanation of the condition. The sad fact is 80 years after the Vienna research in Austria, many people continue to struggle with undiagnosed, neuroligical deviations. Many children grow into adults, still believing they are stupid. The stereotype of the successful computer nerd, employed in Silicon Valley is a modern myth, proclaimed by corporations and less informed authorities.
Bearing in mind most of Lorna Wing’s patients were undergoing treatment at a London clinic, the following extract will help to illustrate that a high proportion of those suffering Asperger Disorder experience an altogether different reality:
“On their arrival at psychiatric wards for adults, these patients, with good cause, are evaluated as long term sufferers of Schizophrenia. Without any positive result, attempts at active therapy are made, through insulin shock treatment and administration of anti-psychotic drugs. ” (Munhin)

Съёмка фильма «Карнавал душ» (Carnival of Souls)

“И может быть фильм даже заставит задуматься о том, где проходит грань между жизнью и смертью, между нашим миром и миром, где происходит карнавал душ.” Buk

Какое отношение имеет Карнавал душ к психологии?

По моему мнению, этот фильм в определенном смысле отражает феномен аутистической психопатии но тоже представляется прежде всего как проявление дереализации.

Съёмка фильма «Карнавал душ» (Carnival of Souls)

Фильм Карнавал душ выпущенный в 1962 году, служит примером низкобюджетного, поразительного достижения (30,000 долларов). Режиссёр Херк Харви говорит что идея художественного фильма пришла ему в голову после того как он увидел Павильон Солтэйр в Солт-Лейк-Сити. В тот момент у него возникло странное ощущение нереальности. После этого странного опыта, он решил не только снять фильм «Карнавал душ», но на главную роль пригласил актрису Кендес Хиллигосс.

Часть фильма была снята в Солт лейк Сити но гонка на автомобилях состоялась в Канзасе. В год выхода Карнавал душ был непонят и успеха фильм не имел – из за того что шестидесятые американские зрители не привыкли к теме отстраненности мировосприятия.Фильм показывали в кинотеатрах для автомобилистов в небольшой аудитории.

Сюжет фильма

О чём расскажет фильм карнавал душ (1962)?

Как следствие автомобильной катастрофы,машина падает с моста в реку но оставшаяся в живых женщина появляется из воды. После этого, эта женщина (по имени Мэри) решает уехать в другой город где планирует работать органисткой. По дороге в городок, ей является призрак бледного мужчины в чёрном костюме и пугает её.

Она снимает комнату в частном пансионе. Она также обращает внимание на полуразрушенный павильон на окраине города. Там создается впечатление исчезнувшего времени. Раньше старое здание являлось баней, а спустя некоторое время парком аттракционов.

Время от времени, появление призрака еще больше испугает молодую женщину. Мэри очень тревожит то что люди вокруг часто не видят ее.

Когда Мэри договаривается с хозяйкой Миссис Томасс насчет аренды комнаты, еще не знает что живет рядом Мистер Линден. К тому же, у Джон Линден нет малейшей идеи кто она такая, но скоро дает себе отчет в том что она привлекательная. На следующий день, Джон стучит в дверь и приносит кофе. Мэри рассказывает что устроилась на работу органисткой в местной церкви (в экономическом плане), и ему кажется странным что для нее религия не имеет важного значения в жизни.

“Думая так, не испытываешь ночные кошмары?”, спрашивает.

Каким нам представляется Мистер Линден? Дело в том, что он просто любит веселиться, пить алкоголь, общаться с знакомыми и бегать за женщинами. Он в самом деле живет в материальном мире и представляет собой образец человека не витающего в облаках. Ирония состоит в том, что он не осведомлен о том, что с Мэри происходит.

Ближе к концу фильма, полупьяный Мистер Линден возвращается с Мэри домой. Он хочет переспать с ней но, в тот же момент, когда стоит позади нее, она попадает в другую реальность. Видит в зеркале бледнолицего мужчину и кричит. Именно на этом этапе нам становится очевидным что дело не только в том, что Мэри не может работать органисткой: Она старается жить в мире где ей нет места.

Кто такая Мэри Генри?

Я сам считаю что мир призраков не смог смириться с попыткой уцелевшей Мэри избежать смерти, уехать в штат Юта и там устроиться на работу органисткой, тем более что этот мир плоти и крови, кажется, существует на границе нереальности страшных бледных людей.

Пока сидит за рулем своей машины по пути в Юта, Мэри первый раз видит призрак бледного мужчины в то же время как очень странная музыка играет на радио. Она очень испугается. В конечном счете, выясняется что призрак в чёрном костюме целыми часами выжидает в павильоне пока любопытство не заставит женщину соединиться к ним.

Попозже, пока наслаждается свежим воздухом в парке, Мэри представляется ,что мертвяк стоит за её спиной и на этот раз испугается до такой степени что врач имени доктора Сэмюэлс спешит ей на помощь. Приглашает Мэри в офис и предлагает услуги.

Консультация Психоаналитика Доктор Сэмюэл?

По моему мнению, самым интересным кадром в фильме является консультация с психологом когда тот старается добраться до сути дела. Ему удается выяснить, что она никогда не чувствовала необходимости иметь парня и не желала развивать личные отношения с людьми.

“Вам не хочется взаимодействовать с людьми, поделиться своим опытом переживания чувств?”, спрашивает психолог.

Молодая женщина отвечает: “Кажется, я не способна сближаться с другими людьми!”

Мэри открывается Доктору Сэмюэлс и утверждает что отделение себя от окружающего мира, неспособность установить контакт с другими людьми всё подобно тому как будто ее никогда не существовала. Иногда бывает так, что окружающие перестают замечать её.
“Ведь это очень страшно, когда тебя никто не замечает, когда ты один, и никому до тебя нет дела.Тема отчуждения пронизывает собой большую часть фильма. Отрешенность и одиночество главной героини по-настоящему берет за душу. (Ваня Старостенко)”

Приехав в новый городок в штате Юта, наша героиня знакомиться с священником маленькой церкви где будет работать органисткой. По этому поводу, священник хочет организовать встречу между поклонниками и молодой женщиной. Она этого не хочет. Для Мэри, играть на органе это не что иное как трудовая деятельность.

На следующий день, личные, психологические проблемы нашей героини достигают точки своей катастрофы. Пока она практикуется нажимая на клавиши органа весь мир ей становится казаться нереальным. Вместо церковных гимнов начинает исполнять на органе музыку ярмарочную и впадает в транс. Она представляет что в заброшенном павильоне призраки танцуют. Священник увольняет Мэри из церкви. Он тоже объясняет почему она не может там работать:

“Церковь, гимны – Для нас всё это имеет значение. Мы предполагали что это было то же самое для вас!”

Суть в том, что Мэри не способна понимать что в церкви она представляет группу поклонников и для того чтобы быть в гармонии с сообществом, нужно разделять их ценности. Кроме того,по мере развития событий, нам становится очевидным что она не имеет представления о том, что у других людей тоже есть чувства.

Начиная от священника и пожилой хозяйки миссис Томас, и заканчивая с психоаналитиком никто из них не в силах ей помогать. Она бродит между двумя параллельными реальностями.